I remember the first time that someone suggested that I was a ‘positivist’. I thought that it sounded quite pleasant. I mean, you wouldn’t want to be a ‘negitivist’ now, would you? However, there was something odd about it. The issue had been raised during a discussion about teaching methods and the person who raised it was acting as if he had delivered a killer blow. His look said, “How are you going to get back from that?” I was puzzled.
So I looked it up on the internet. According to Britannica, positivism is, “any system that confines itself to the data of experience and excludes a priori or metaphysical speculations.” Thus, the argument;
1. Positivism is wrong
2. You are a positivist
3. Therefore, you are wrong
would not convince a positivist because is rests upon an a priori assumption, namely that positivism is wrong. It is also not a convincing argument for a number of other reasons.
Firstly, I am not a positivist because I accept a number of a priori assumptions. I believe in objective reality and oppose relativism which I see as prone to absurdity and self-contradiction. I don’t need to count the daisies in my lawn in order to draw this conclusion. I also hold a number of moral convictions. For instance, I think it is wrong for students to swear at their teachers. I don’t even need to involve myself in defining ‘swearing’ in order to readily assent to this idea.
I have quite a few views that are like this. For instance, I don’t believe that states should be in the business of murdering their own citizens, whatever those citizens have done, unless they represent a clear and acute threat to the well-being of others (e.g. suicide bombers). This is not a view based upon empirical data. I also quite like this extract from the American Declaration of Independence:
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Setting the arguments about the existence of a creator to one side, I like the sentiment of this statement because it speaks to the kind of world that I want to live in. I require no statistical correlation to accept the rights of men and women (I would add that bit in) to pursue happiness.
So why does this come about? Why do a get accused of holding a philosophical position that I do not hold? And what of the genuine positivists in all of this? Someone should at least do them the service of explaining why they are a priori wrong.
I think the criticism of me is due to a sleight-of-hand where the part becomes the whole. Whereas I have no problem in accepting the truth of statements that are not based upon experiment or observation, I am also fine with accepting the truth of statements that are. To me, this seems perfectly reasonable. Due to my a priori acceptance of objective reality, I believe that measurements give us insight into this reality. If someone is making truth claims that can potentially be measured against reality then I am interested in measuring them.
Of course, I also accept that things can be complicated. The business of education involves humans, after all. There are three possible truths:
1. Education is predictable – we can derive certain laws from experiment that will enable us to predict the learning of each individual.
2. Education is weakly predictable – we can derive laws that tell us what might happen on average with groups of students under certain conditions but these laws cannot fully predict the learning of each individual.
3. Education is entirely unpredictable.
I am not aware of anyone advocating for the first of these. Even if education really were this deterministic then we would probably need to possess information that no teachers could ever possess; details of the changing moods of all of our students, for instance. So it might be predictable in principle but chaotic in practice.
We can easily decide between the latter two possible truths by experiment and observation. If education is entirely unpredictable then anyone who thinks she has found a rule must be in error. If we repeat her experiment or observations a number of times then the finding will wash-out.
This does not seem to be the case. For instance, the fact that worked examples are better than problem solving for teaching novices the rudiments of algebra seems to be a robust result. But this is an example that I offer from my own home turf.
What is it that you believe? Do you believe that inquiry learning is more motivating for science students than explicit instruction? If so, this is testable. We could run the two conditions against each other and survey the students or perhaps measure the proportion that go on to further study of science. With a large enough group we could uncover even a very weak effect.
Granted, an experiment will never tell you whether it is morally right to shout at a child. I accept that. And yet educationalists are making experimentally testable claims all the time without usually providing much evidence to support them.
Every time you promote a particular teaching practice or curriculum, you are implying its advantages over alternatives in order to meet some objective or other; building creativity, collaborative skills, teaching kids to read. The claims you are making are therefore potentially testable: Presumably, there must be some way of distinguishing between a person with good or bad collaborative skills. If so, we can use it to see if your method produces more people with good skills – on average – than the alternatives [There is a danger here that is common in educational research of defining the desired trait so that it is basically equivalent to participating in the intervention, but that’s a separate issue]. In fact, if you accept that outcomes will vary a lot at an individual level then you have even more of a reason to pursue a larger trial and less of a reason to look at individual case studies where you have no hope of isolating the effect of any teaching from an array of other intra-personal factors. And guess what, some clever people invented statistics to help us try to make sense of it all.
Seen in this light, the cry of ‘positivism’ leveled at those who reference large scale educational trials looks like a defence mechanism. When the boy cried, “But the emperor has no clothes!” perhaps the emperor should have replied, “POSITIVIST!”
You see, education is in a poor state. We teachers desperately want to be seen as a grown-up profession, yet we can’t even agree that what we do should have some sort of measurable effect. How do we expect the public to trust us? Bear in mind that there’s a lot of their tax dollars riding on this. When asked to justify our existence, we must give a clearer account and we must take control of it ourselves. Otherwise, we will see flawed accountability measures imposed upon us by increasingly desperate politicians. Wait, that already happened.
One of the places where the debate is currently taking place is in social media. Recently, I was involved in a discussion with a researcher who wrote, “Well I’ve thrown down a challenge, back your evidence up with theory or admit you have no pedagogy.”
Back your evidence up with theory?
I retweeted this and James Theo commented, “I laughed. And then I realised that this sort of thing is why we struggle to be seen as a profession and was sad.”